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K1 Popular Video: AVI - MPEG - FLV - MP4 - 3GP - WMV - ASF - MOV - OGG - RM/RMVB - DivX - XviD - H.264/AVC - H.263
K2 Popular Audio: MP3 - M4A - AAC - AC3 - AMR - WMA - WAV - OGG(Vorbis)
K3 Popular Portable Media Player Device: iPod - PSP - ZUNE - ZEN - Blackberry - PDA - Pocket PC
K4 Popular Home Media: DVD - VCD - SVCD - CD - VOB - IFO - CDA - DAT - DTS - NTSC - PAL - DV - VHS - ISO
K5 DVD Related: CSS - Region Code - Macrovision - Arccos - DVD-5 - DVD-9 - DVD Title - DVD Chapter - Blu-ray DVD
KnowledgeBase - 4 - Popular Home Media
K4 Popular Home Media: DVD - VCD - SVCD - CD - VOB - IFO - CDA - DAT - DTS - NTSC - PAL - DV - VHS - ISO
DVD - Digital Video Disc
It is a popular optical disc storage media format. Its main uses are video and data storage. Most DVDs are of the same dimensions as compact discs (CDs) but store more than six times as much data.
Variations of the term DVD often describe the way data is stored on the discs: DVD-ROM has data that can only be read and not written, DVD-R and DVD+R can record data only once and then function as a DVD-ROM. DVD-RW, DVD+RW and DVD-RAM can both record and erase data multiple times. The wavelength used by standard DVD lasers is 650 nm, and thus the light has a red color.
DVD-Video and DVD-Audio discs respectively refer to properly formatted and structured video and audio content. Other types of DVDs, including those with video content, may be referred to as DVD-Data discs. As next generation high-definition optical formats also use a disc identical in some aspects yet more advanced than a DVD, such as Blu-ray Disc, the original DVD is occasionally given the retronym SD DVD (for standard definition).
  • DVD-5(D5): DVD-5 is a single sided single layer DVD that stores up to about 4.7 GB = 4 700 000 000 bytes and that is 4.38 computer GB where 1 kbyte is 1024 bytes(Over 2 hours of video). Video DVD, DVD-R/W and DVD+R/W supports this format. Often referred to as "single sided, single layer". This is the most common DVD Media, often called 4.7 GB Media.
  • DVD-9(D9): DVD-9 is a single sided dual layer DVD, holds around 8 540 000 000 bytes and that is 7.95 computer GB(Over 4 hours of video). This media is called DVD+R9, DVD DL-RW, DVD DL+R or Dual-layer 8.5GB Media. RZ DVD COPY support D9 to D5 copy.

DVD-Video is a standard for storing video content on DVD media. Although many resolutions and formats are supported, most consumer DVD-Video discs use either 4:3 or anamorphic 16:9 aspect ratio MPEG-2 video, stored at a resolution of 720×480 (NTSC) or 720×576 (PAL) at 23.976, 29.97, or 25 FPS. Audio is commonly stored using the Dolby Digital (AC-3) or Digital Theater System (DTS) formats, ranging from 16-bits/48 kHz to 24-bits/96 kHz format with monaural to 7.1 channel "Surround Sound" presentation, and/or MPEG-1 Layer 2. Although the specifications for video and audio requirements vary by global region and television system, many DVD players support all possible formats. DVD-Video also supports features such as menus, selectable subtitles, multiple camera angles, and multiple audio tracks.
VCD - Video CD
It is a standard digital format for storing video on a Compact Disc. VCDs are playable in dedicated VCD players, most modern DVD-Video players, personal computers, and some video game consoles.
In a VCD, the audio and video streams are multiplexed in an MPEG-PS container.
    Video Codec: MPEG-1
    NTSC Video Resolution: 352x240
    PAL/SECAM Video Resolution: 352x288
    NTSC Framerate: 29.97 or 23.976 frames per second
    PAL/SECAM Framerate: 25 frames per second
    Video Bitrate: 1150 kilobits per second
    Video Rate Control: constant bitrate

    Audio Codec: MPEG-1 Audio Layer II
    Audio Frequency: 44,100 hertz (44.1 kHz)
    Audio Output Channels: Dual channel or stereo
    Audio Bitrate: 224 kilobits per second
    Audio Rate Control: Constant bitrate
SVCD - Super Video CD
It is a digital format for storing video on standard compact discs. SVCD was intended as a successor to Video CD and an alternative to DVD-Video, and falls somewhere between both in terms of technical capability and picture quality.
In an SVCD, the audio and video streams are multiplexed in a MPEG-PS container.
    Video Codec: MPEG-2
    NTSC Video Resolution: 480x480
    PAL/SECAM Video Resolution: 480x576
    NTSC Framerate: 29.97 frames per second
    PAL/SECAM Framerate: 25 frames per second
    Video Bitrate: Up to 2600 kilobits per second
    Video Rate Control: Constant or variable bit rate

    Audio Codec: MPEG-1 Audio Layer II
    Audio Frequency: 44,100 hertz (44.1 kHz)
    Audio Output Channels: Monaural, dual channel, stereo, and multichannel support up to 5.1 output.
    Audio Bitrate: from 32 to 384 kilobits per second, inclusive.
    Audio Rate Control: Constant or Variable bit rate
CD - Compact Disc
A Compact Disc (also known as a CD) is an optical disc used to store digital data, originally developed for storing digital audio. The CD, available on the market since October 1982, remains the standard physical medium for sale of commercial audio recordings to the present day.
Standard CDs have a diameter of 120 mm and can hold up to 80 minutes of audio (700MB of data). The Mini CD has various diameters ranging from 60 to 80 mm; they are sometimes used for CD singles or device drivers, storing up to 24 minutes of audio.
The technology was later adapted and expanded to include data storage CD-ROM, write-once audio and data storage CD-R, rewritable media CD-RW, Super Audio CD (SACD), Video Compact Discs (VCD), Super Video Compact Discs (SVCD), PhotoCD, PictureCD, CD-i, and Enhanced CD. CD-ROMs and CD-Rs remain widely used technologies in the computer industry. The CD and its extensions have been extremely successful: in 2004, worldwide sales of CD audio, CD-ROM, and CD-R reached about 30 billion discs. By 2007, 200 billion CDs had been sold worldwide.
VOB - Video Object
A VOB file (Video Object) is a container format contained in DVD-Video media. VOB is based on MPEG-2 program stream format, but with additional limitations and specifications in the private streams. It contains the actual DVD Video, Audio, Subtitle, and Menu contents in stream form.
IFO is a DVD InFOrmation file that stores information about Chapters, Subtitles and Audio Tracks.
IFO information is a Video Title Set (VTS).
An IFO file is one of three types of files that are used on DVDs. It contains important navigational information, such as where a video chapter begins, and where audio and subtitle streams exist within the movie (VOB) file. IFO files are not encrypted.
Other DVD files include VOB and BUP files.
The BUP file is a backup of the IFO file on a DVD, which contains the information about the organization of tracks, menus, chapters, subtitles on the disc. The BUP files are used in the event that the corresponding IFO file is unreadable, perhaps due to a scratch on the surface of the disc.
CDA - Advanced Systems Format
CDA stands for CD Audio, A CD Audio Track or .cda file is a small (44 bytes) file generated by Microsoft Windows for each track on an audio CD. The file contains indexing information that programs can use to play or rip the disc. The files are given names in the format Track??.cda.
The .cda files do not contain the actual PCM wave data, but instead tell where on the disc the track starts and stops. If the file is copied from the CD-ROM to the computer, it becomes useless, since it is only a shortcut to part of the disc. However, some audio editing and CD creation programs will, from the user's perspective, load .cda files as though they are actual audio data files.
In audio/video terminology it normally refers to files that VCD has in its SEGMENT or MPEGAV directiories. These DAT files are basically MPEG-1 Video files with an additional information and certain specific file structure - they are NOT "real" MPEG-1 files and you need to convert them back to "real" MPEG-1 files in order to edit them even that most of the software players treat them as regular MPEG-1 files.
DTS - Digital Theater System
DTS (also known as Digital Theater System(s)), owned by DTS, Inc., is a multi-channel digital surround sound format used for both commercial/theatrical and consumer grade applications. It is used for in-movie sound both on film and on DVD, and during the last few years of the Laserdisc format's existence, several releases had DTS soundtracks.
Both music and movie DVDs allow delivery of DTS audio tracks. But DTS was not part of the original DVD specification (1997), so early DVD players did not recognize DTS audio tracks at all. The DVD specification was revised to allow optional inclusion of DTS audio tracks. The DVD title must carry one or more primary audio tracks in AC-3 or LPCM format (in Europe, MPEG-1 Layer 2 is also an allowed primary track format). The DTS audio track, if present, can be selected by the user. Modern DVD players can now decode DTS natively with no problem, or pass it through to an external decoder. Nearly all standalone receivers and many integrated ("home theater in a box") DVD player/receivers manufactured today can decode DTS.
On the consumer level, DTS is the oft-used shorthand for the DTS Coherent Acoustics codec, transportable through S/PDIF and used on DVDs, CDDAs, LDs and in wave files. This system is the consumer version of the DTS standard, using a similar codec without needing separate DTS CD-ROM media.
NTSC - National Television System Committee
NTSC is the video system or standard used in most of the Americas, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, the Philippines, Burma, and some Pacific island nations and territories. NTSC is also the name of the U.S. standardization body that adopted the NTSC broadcast standard. In NTSC, 30(29.97) frames are transmitted each second. Each frame is made up of 525 individual scan lines.
PAL - Phase Alternating Line
PAL is a colour-encoding system used in broadcast television systems in large parts of the world. In PAL, 25 frames are transmitted each second. Each frame is made up of 625 individual scan lines.
DV - Digital Video
It is a digital video format created by Sony, JVC, Panasonic and other video camera producers, and launched in 1995.
Most DV players, editors and encoders only support the basic DV format, but not its professional versions. DV Audio/Video data can be stored as raw DV data stream file (data is written to a file as the data is received over FireWire, file extensions are.dv and.dif) or the DV data can be packed into AVI container files. The DV meta-information is preserved in both file types.
There are two methods of storing DV video data, that is, type-1 and type-2. Both are stored usually in AVI files.
  • Type 1: The multiplexed Audio-Video is kept in its original multiplexing and saved together into the Video section of the AVI file.
    • Does not waste much space (audio is saved uncompressed, but even uncompressed audio is tiny compared to the video part of DV), but Windows applications based on the VfW API do not support it.
  • Type 2: Like type 1, but audio is also saved as an additional audio stream into the file.
    • Supported by VfW applications, at the price of little increased file size.
    Type 1 is actually the newer of the two types. Microsoft made the "type" designations, and decided to name their older VfW-compatible version "Type 2", which only furthered confusion about the two types. In the late 1990s through early 2000s, most professional-level DV software, including non-linear editing programs, only supported Type 1. One notable exception was Adobe Premiere, which only supported Type 2. High-end FireWire controllers usually captured to Type 1 only, while "consumer" level controllers usually captured to Type 2 only. Software is and was available for converting Type 1 AVIs to Type 2, and vice-versa, but this is a time-consuming process.
    Many current FireWire controllers still only capture to one or the other type. However, almost all current DV software supports both Type 1 and Type 2 editing and rendering, including Adobe Premiere. Thus, many of today's users are unaware of the fact that there are two types of DV AVI files. In any event, the debate continues as to which – Type 1 or Type 2 – if either, is better.
    VHS - Video Home System
    The Video Home System, better known by its abbreviation VHS, is a recording and playing standard developed by Victor Company of Japan, Limited (JVC) and launched in Europe and Asia in September 1975, and the United States in June 1976. By the 1990s, VHS became a standard format for consumer recording and viewing, after competing in a fierce format war with Sony Corporation's Betamax and, to a much lesser extent, Philips' Video 2000, MCA's Laserdisc and RCA's Capacitance Electronic Disc.
    It is an analog format capable of delivering 240 lines of video resolution, along with stereo sound that's nearly as good as CD. Blank tapes usually feature either 120 minutes or 160 minutes of recording time at the highest recording speed (6 hours or 8 hours at the slowest speed).
    Several improved versions of VHS exist, most notably Super-VHS (S-VHS), an analog video standard with improved video bandwidth. S-VHS improved the luminance resolution to 400 horizontal per picture height (versus 250 for VHS/Beta and 500 for DVD). The audio-system (both linear and AFM) is the same. S-VHS made little impact on the home market, but gained dominance in the camcorder market due to its superior picture quality.
    The other improved standard, called Digital-VHS (D-VHS), records digital high definition video onto a VHS form factor tape. D-VHS can record up to 4 hours of ATSC Digital Television in 720p or 1080i formats using the fastest record mode (equivalent to VHS-SP), and up to 40 hours of standard definition video at slower speeds.
    ISO Image file is a single large file that is a representation of the whole set of data and programs as it will appear on a disc. It contains the complete image of a disc. A disc image refers to both content and logical format. It can be useful to:
    • Replicate your DVD further, using DVD mastering programs such as Nero Burning rom, RZ DVD COPY etc.
    • Write the disc image to hard drive once, and then record it several times to different DVDs to save processing time.
    • Create a disc image file to be written to DVD on another system (UNIX, Macintosh).
    • Backup DVD data.
    • Use for a virtual DVD drive. You can mount an ISO image file to a virtual drive.
    • Used to transfer DVD images over the Internet.
    01. How to watch any downloaded video on TV? click for the easiest solution.
    02. How to backup my DVD movie? click for the easiest solution.
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